Economic evaluation of sacral neuromodulation in overactive bladder: A Canadian perspective

Magdy M. Hassouna, Hamid Sadri


Introduction: Refractory overactive bladder (OAB) with urge incontinence is an underdiagnosed condition with substantial burden on the healthcare system and diminished patient’s quality-of-life. Many patients will fail conservative treatment with optimized medical-therapy (OMT) and may benefit from minimally invasive procedures, including sacral-neuromodulation (SNM) or botulinum- toxin (BonT-A). The goal of this study was to estimate the costefectiveness of SNM vs. OMT and BonT-A as important parameters from coverage and access to a therapy.

Methods: A Markov model with Monte-Carlo simulation was used to assess the incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) of SNM vs. BonT-A and OMT both in deterministic and probabilistic analysis from a provincial payer perspective over a 10-year time horizon with 9-month Markov-cycles. Clinical data, healthcare resource utilization, and utility scores were acquired from recent publications and an expert panel of 7 surgeons. Cost data (2014-Dollars) were derived from provincial health insurance policy, drug benefit formulary, and hospital data. All cost and outcomes were discounted at a 3% rate.

Results: The annual (year 1–10) incremental quality-adjusted life years for SNM vs. BonT-A was 0.05 to 0.51 and SNM vs. OMT was 0.19 to 1.76. The annual incremental cost of SNM vs. BonT-A was $7237 in year 1 and -$9402 in year 10 and was between $8878 and -$11 447 vs. OMT. In the base-case deterministic analysis, the ICER for SNM vs. BonT-A and OMT were within the acceptable range ($44 837 and $15 130, respectively) at the second year of therapy, and SNM was dominant in consequent years. In the basecase analysis the probability of ICER being below the acceptability curve (willingness-to-pay $50 000) was >99% for SNM vs. BonT-A at year 3 and >95% for OMT at year 2.

Conclusion: SNM is a cost-effective treatment option to manage patients with refractory OAB when compared to either BonT-A or OMT. From a Canadian payers’ perspective, SNM may be considered a first-line treatment option in management of patients with OAB with superior long-term outcomes. Similar to all economic analysis, this study has limitations which are based on the assumptions of the used model.


Sacral Neuromodulation QALYS Cost

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